The Neuroprotective Effect of Micronized Purified Flavonoid Fraction in an Experimental Parkinson’s Disease Model
Micronized purified flavonoid fraction (MPFF; Daflon®) containing 90% diosmin and 10% hesperidin is a vasoactive drug used for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency and hemorrhoids. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of MPFF on the development of brain oxidative stress and neuronal damage induced in the rat by systemic rotenone injection. Rats received subcutaneous injections of rotenone (1.5 mg/kg) every other day for two weeks and were orally treated with MPFF (9 or 18 mg/kg). Results indicated that rotenone caused a significantly elevated oxidative stress in the cerebral cortex, striatum, and the rest of the brain tissue. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide concentrations were increased. In contrast, the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) were decreased in the above brain regions. Moreover, the concentration of the antiapoptotic protein B cell/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) in the striatum decreased after rotenone injection. Rotenone caused neuronal vacuolation and apoptotic neurons in the striatum, cortex, and hippocampus. Treatment with MPFF reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, the rotenone-induced increase in brain lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide and restored GSH level and PON-1 activity to vehicle control values. Moreover, MPFF was found to attenuate the decrease in Bcl-2 and the histopathological changes in the brain of rotenone-treated animals. These results suggest that MPFF could be a potential therapeutic “add on” for the pharmacological treatment of Parkinson’s disease.
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